Business and Marketing

What is the Difference Between a Public Limited Company and a Partnership Firm?

Public Limited Company and a Partnership Firm

In the business world, different legal structures govern organizations based on their nature and scale of operations. Two commonly encountered structures are public limited companies and partnership firms.

While both serve as vehicles for conducting business activities, they possess distinct features and are suitable for different purposes. In this blog post, we will explore about the fundamental differences between a public limited company and a partnership firm, shedding light on their key characteristics, benefits, and disparities.

Definition of a Public Limited Company

A public limited company, also known as a PLC, is a type of business entity that is publicly traded on the stock exchange. It has a separate legal identity from its shareholders and is governed by company laws and regulations. PLCs raise capital by issuing shares to the general public and can have an unlimited number of shareholders.

Key Features of a Public Limited Company

  • Separate Legal Entity: A PLC is considered a distinct legal entity from its owners, which means it can own property, enter into contracts, and sue or be sued in its own name.
  • Limited Liability: Shareholders’ liability is limited to the amount they have invested in the company. Their personal assets are not at risk in case of business liabilities.
  • Publicly Traded: PLCs have the ability to offer their shares to the public, allowing them to raise substantial amounts of capital by selling ownership stakes.
  • Minimum Share Capital: A PLC must have a minimum amount of authorized share capital, which is the value of shares it can issue to the public.
  • Board of Directors: A PLC is managed by a board of directors elected by shareholders, who are responsible for making strategic decisions and overseeing the company’s operations.

Advantages of a Public Limited Company

  • Access to Capital: Being publicly traded, a PLC can attract large investments from the public through the issuance of shares, providing significant capital for growth and expansion.
  • Enhanced Credibility: Public limited companies often enjoy a higher level of credibility and trust among customers, suppliers, and potential business partners.
  • Transferability of Shares: Shares of a PLC can be easily bought and sold on the stock exchange, offering shareholders liquidity and the ability to exit their investments.
  • Professional Management: PLCs typically have a board of directors comprising experienced professionals who bring expertise and diverse perspectives to the decision-making process.
  • Limited Liability: Shareholders are protected from personal liability, limiting their financial risk to their investment in the company.

 Definition of a Partnership Firm

A partnership firm is a type of business organization formed by two or more individuals who enter into an agreement to carry on a business together and share its profits and losses. It is governed by the Indian Partnership Act, 1932.

Key Features of a Partnership Firm

  • Number of Members: A partnership firm must have a minimum of two members and can have a maximum of twenty members, subject to the provisions of the Partnership Act.
  • Unlimited Liability: Partners in a firm have unlimited personal liability, meaning their personal assets can be used to settle business debts or obligations.
  • Shared Control and Management: Partners actively participate in the management and decision-making processes, pooling their skills and resources for the benefit of the firm.
  • Mutual Agency: Partners act as agents of the partnership and have the authority to bind the firm and other partners to contractual obligations.

Advantages of a Partnership Firm

  • Ease of Formation: Partnership firms are relatively easy and inexpensive to set up, requiring minimal legal formalities.
  • Shared Responsibilities: Partners can share the workload and responsibilities, allowing for a division of labor based on individual expertise and strengths.
  • Flexibility in Decision Making: Partnerships offer more flexibility in decision-making processes, as partners can quickly adapt to changing circumstances and make collective decisions.
  • Taxation Benefits: Partnership firms are not subject to separate taxation. Instead, profits and losses are distributed among partners and taxed at their individual income tax rates.
  • Confidentiality: Partnership firms operate privately, and their financial information is not publicly disclosed, providing a level of confidentiality.

Differences Between a Public Limited Company and a Partnership Firm

Capital Requirement

  • Public Limited Company: A PLC requires a substantial amount of capital to meet the minimum share capital requirement. The company can raise funds by issuing shares to the public.
  • Partnership Firm: A partnership firm does not have any specific capital requirement. The partners contribute capital based on mutual agreement, which may vary depending on the business’s nature and scale.

 Ownership Structure

  • Public Limited Company: Ownership in a PLC is represented by shares that can be bought and sold by the general public. The ownership can be widely distributed among numerous shareholders.
  • Partnership Firm: Ownership in a partnership firm is based on a mutual agreement between the partners. The number of partners is limited, and they jointly own and manage the business.

 Legal Formalities

  • Public Limited Company: The formation of a PLC involves more complex legal formalities, including registration with the appropriate regulatory authorities and compliance with company laws and regulations.
  • Partnership Firm: Partnership firms have relatively fewer legal formalities. Partners can enter into a partnership agreement orally or in writing, although a written agreement is highly recommended.

 Liability of Members

  • Public Limited Company: The liability of shareholders in a PLC is limited to the amount they have invested in the company. Their personal assets are not at risk.
  • Partnership Firm: Partners in a firm have unlimited liability, which means their personal assets can be used to satisfy the firm’s debts or obligations.

 Management and Decision-Making

  • Public Limited Company: The management of a PLC is entrusted to a board of directors elected by shareholders. Shareholders exercise their control through voting rights based on the number of shares they hold.
  • Partnership Firm: Partners actively participate in the management and decision-making processes of a partnership firm. Decisions are typically made through mutual agreement or based on predefined partnership terms.

Transferability of Ownership

  • Public Limited Company: Shares of a PLC can be freely bought and sold on the stock exchange, allowing for easy transferability of ownership.
  • Partnership Firm: Ownership in a partnership firm is not easily transferable. A partner cannot transfer their share without the consent of other partners, as stated in the partnership agreement.


  • Public Limited Company: PLCs are subject to corporate tax on their profits. Additionally, shareholders may be liable to pay tax on dividends received.
  • Partnership Firm: Partnership firms are not taxed separately. Instead, the profits and losses of the firm are distributed among partners and taxed at their individual income tax rates.


In summary, while both public limited companies and partnership firms serve as legal structures for conducting business, they have significant differences in operation and legal representations. Public limited companies are characterized by their ability to raise capital from the public through share issuances and have limited liability for shareholders. Partnership firms, on the other hand, offer flexibility, shared responsibilities, and unlimited liability for partners. Understanding these distinctions is crucial for entrepreneurs and investors to choose the most appropriate structure based on their business goals and requirements. Learn here more about business and marketing.

 FAQs (Frequently Asked Questions)

Q1. Can a public limited company have a single shareholder?

A1. Yes, a public limited company can have a single shareholder, but it must comply with the minimum share capital requirement and other legal obligations.

Q2. Can a partnership firm be converted into a public limited company?

A2. Yes, a partnership firm can be converted into a public limited company by following the prescribed legal procedures and obtaining necessary approvals.

Q3. Are public limited companies subject to more stringent regulatory requirements than partnership firms?

A3. Yes, public limited companies are subject to stricter regulatory requirements due to their publicly traded nature, which includes financial reporting, compliance with securities laws, and shareholder disclosures.

Q4. Can a partnership firm have more than twenty partners?

A4. No, a partnership firm cannot have more than twenty partners, except in the case of certain professional partnerships allowed by specific laws.

Q5. Which business structure offers better tax benefits, a public limited company, or a partnership firm?

A5. The tax benefits vary depending on the specific circumstances and applicable tax laws. It is advisable to consult a tax professional to determine the most advantageous structure for tax purposes.