Business and Marketing

Choosing a Business Structure: LLC vs. Sole Proprietorship

Choosing a Business Structure: LLC vs. Sole Proprietorship

Choosing a Business Structure: LLC vs. Sole Proprietorship

When starting a new business, one of the first decisions entrepreneurs need to make is choosing a business structure. Two common options for small businesses are limited liability companies (LLCs) and sole proprietorships. Both offer advantages and disadvantages in terms of taxes, liability protection, and paperwork requirements.

In this blog post, will compare LLCs and sole proprietorships to help you decide which structure may work best for your business.

What is an LLC?

A limited liability company (LLC) is a business structure that combines aspects of partnerships and corporations. Like a corporation, an LLC protects its owners from personal liability for any debts or liabilities the business takes on. But similar to a partnership or sole proprietorship, profits and losses can pass through the business and be reported on the owners’ personal tax returns.

LLCs are formed by filing articles of organization with the secretary of state in the state where the business operates. An operating agreement outlines the LLC’s financial and managerial structure. LLCs can elect to be taxed as a sole proprietorship, partnership, or corporation. Most small LLCs choose to be taxed as sole proprietorships or partnerships.

Advantages of an LLC:

1- Personal liability protection for owners
2- Pass-through taxation (avoids double taxation on corporate income)
3- Flexible management and ownership structures
4- Increased credibility with customers compared to sole proprietorships

Disadvantages of an LLC:

1- More complex to establish and maintain than a sole proprietorship
2- Requires articles of organization and operating agreement
3- May be subject to annual report filing requirements and fees

What is a Sole Proprietorship?

A sole proprietorship is the simplest and most common small business structure. It is an unincorporated business owned and operated by one individual. The business has no existence apart from the owner. All debts and liabilities are the legal responsibility of the owner.

No formal business registration is required to form a sole proprietorship, although the business may need licenses and permits. The business’s profits and losses are reported on the owner’s personal tax return along with other income.

Advantages of a Sole Proprietorship:

1- Easy and inexpensive to form – little paperwork required
2- Complete managerial control by the owner
3- Taxation is simple – profits and losses are reported on the owner’s returns
4- No special registration is required

Disadvantages of a Sole Proprietorship:

1- No liability protection – the owner is personally responsible for all debts and liabilities
2- Limited financing options and resources compared to other structures
3- Business dissolves if the owner dies, retires, or becomes disabled
4- Difficult for a sole proprietorship to retain employees

Choosing the Right Structure

Deciding between an LLC and sole proprietorship requires carefully weighing three key factors – liability protection, taxation, and administrative complexity.

Liability Protection

A major advantage of an LLC is that it shields the owner’s personal assets from the business’s debts and liabilities. With a sole proprietorship, the owner is personally responsible for all business debts, lawsuits, and legal actions taken against the company. This can put the owner’s house, cars, savings, and other assets at risk if the business faces major liabilities.

An LLC separates the business entity from the owner’s personal finances and assets. Creditors can seize LLC assets and funds, but typically cannot go after an LLC member’s home, retirement accounts, or other personal property. For businesses with higher risks like medical practices, construction contractors, and consulting firms, the liability protection of an LLC is crucial.

However, LLC protection has limits. If an owner personally guarantees a business loan or debt, they can still be held personally liable for repayment. Also, neglecting formalities like maintaining separate business and personal bank accounts can “pierce the corporate veil” and remove liability protections. But in general, LLCs shield personal assets far better than sole proprietorships.


LLCs provide flow-through taxation – any profits or losses pass through the business to the owners’ personal tax returns. This avoids the double taxation of corporate income. Sole proprietorships are also pass-through entities with taxation reported directly by the business owner.

When it comes to income taxes, LLCs and sole proprietorships offer similar tax treatment and flexibility. But self-employment taxes on net business income can be higher under a sole proprietorship. LLCs allow more options to potentially reduce self-employment tax exposure. But the tax structure of both entities is relatively straightforward compared to corporations.

Administrative Complexity

Forming an LLC requires filing articles of organization, creating an operating agreement, and registering for taxes appropriately. This involves more upfront time, effort, and legal/accounting guidance than a sole proprietorship. Ongoing management is also more formalized with an LLC, requiring dedicated recordkeeping, meetings, votes, and corporate formalities.

Sole proprietorships have almost no paperwork or formal requirements. The business structure is uncomplicated and flexible. But less formal governance can also become problematic as a company grows. Overall administrative complexity and costs are substantially lower with a sole proprietorship.

Weighing the tradeoffs between these three factors – liability, taxes, and simplicity – helps guide the LLC vs sole proprietorship decision. Consulting attorneys and accountants can provide additional perspective before committing to a business structure aligned with your goals and risk tolerance.


Sole proprietorships offer simplicity and flexibility at a low cost. But they expose owners to greater personal risk. Assessing your business goals, risks, and resources can help determine which structure fits best. Consulting legal and tax advisors can also provide guidance when deciding between an LLC vs a sole proprietorship. With the right information, you can choose a business structure positioned for success. Learn here more about business and marketing.


Q. What is the main difference between an LLC and a sole proprietorship?

The key difference is that an LLC provides liability protection for personal assets, while a sole proprietorship does not. With an LLC, the owner’s personal property is generally protected from business debts and legal claims.

Q. How are LLCs and sole proprietorships taxed differently?

Both LLCs and sole proprietorships allow pass-through taxation, so profits/losses are reported on the owners’ personal tax returns. But sole proprietorships may have slightly higher self-employment tax liability on net business income.

Q. Is an LLC or sole proprietorship easier to manage?

Sole proprietorships are much simpler to manage because there are very few formal business requirements. LLCs require more recordkeeping, paperwork, and adherence to corporate formalities.

Q. What are the ongoing compliance requirements for an LLC vs a sole proprietorship?

LLCs may need to file annual reports, hold formal member meetings, and maintain a separate corporate record book. Sole proprietorships have very minimal compliance requirements.

Q. How long does it take to set up an LLC vs. a sole proprietorship?

Forming an LLC requires filing articles of organization and creating an operating agreement, which can take several weeks. No special filings are needed for a sole proprietorship, so it can be established instantly.